08/23/1998 19:25:20 Chronology of Russian government crises
MOSCOW, Aug 23 (Reuters) - Russian President Boris Yeltsin,
who sacked his entire government on Sunday for the second time
this year, has often responded to bad news and policy failures
by sacking people around him.
Following are some of the key shakeups in his seven years in
June 16, 1991 - Yeltsin elected the first executive
president of Russia, then still a part of the Soviet Union.
August 1991 - Hardline Communists try to oust Soviet leader
Mikhail Gorbachev. Yeltsin plays key role in blocking the coup.
Autumn 1991 - Yeltsin announces radical economic reform,
including freeing of prices and privatisation. He puts
little-known reformer Yegor Gaidar in charge of the plans.
December 8, 1991 - Yeltsin and the leaders of Belarus and
Ukraine sign an agreement dissolving the Soviet Union.
June 16, 1992 - Yeltsin names Gaidar acting prime minister.
December 14, 1992 - Under pressure from conservative
parliament, Yeltsin sacks reformer Gaidar and names Viktor
Chernomyrdin, former head of gas monopoly Gazprom, as prime
minister, a post he will hold for more than five years.
April 25, 1993 - Yeltsin wins nationwide referendum on
confidence in his rule. Stand-off with parliament worsens.
September 21-October 4, 1993 - Yeltsin dissolves parliament,
calls new elections. Rebel parliamentarians refuse to vacate
building, leading to long siege. After a night of violence in
which parliament's supporters try to storm television
headquarters, Yeltsin calls in tanks. Parliamentarians surrender
after being shelled.
December 12, 1993 - Russians vote in favour of new
constitution giving Yeltsin wide powers.
October 11, 1994 - Rouble nose-dives against dollar in
Russia's first post-Soviet currency crisis. Yeltsin sacks acting
finance minister Sergei Dubinin.
December, 1994 - Yeltsin sends troops to breakaway region of
Chechnya, opening two years of war.
December 17, 1995 - General election. Communists stage major
comeback taking more than one third of seats.
January, 1996 - Yeltsin sacks high profile liberals,
including Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and First Deputy Prime
Minister Anatoly Chubais in a further shift away from reform.
June, 1996 - In runup to presidential election, Yeltsin
sacks security officials and army officers, including defence
minister Pavel Grachev. Yeltsin wins election, but only after
taking on general Alexander Lebed as his security chief.
August 31, 1996 - Lebed signs truce ending war in Chechnya.
October, 1996 - Yeltsin fires Lebed.
February - April, 1997 - Yeltsin reshuffles his cabinet with
reformers again in key roles.
May 22, 1997 - Yeltsin sacks Defence Minister Igor Rodionov.
November 1997 - Market begins slide on bad news from Asia.
February 28, 1998 - Yeltsin sacks three minor ministers.
March 23 - Yeltsin, angered at slow pace of reform, sacks
entire government. Chernomyrdin replaced by 35-year-old energy
minister Sergei Kiriyenko.
April 29 - May 5 - New cabinet, packed with reformers is
announced. Markets recover slightly, but fall soon resumes.
July 13 - International Monetary Fund and other foreign
lenders agree to $22.6 billion bale-out loan package. Markets
recover again, but slide later resumes.
Aug 14 - Yeltsin vows rouble will not be devalued.
Aug 17 - Rouble is effectively devalued after government
raises corridor in which rouble can fluctuate against dollar.
Moratorium is placed on repayments of some commcercial banks'
debts. Some state debt is to be restructured.
Aug 21 - Lower house of parliament blasts Kiriyenko and
government and adopts resolution demanding Yeltsin quit.
Kiriyenko says he is not stepping down.
August 23 - Yeltsin sacks entire government, appointing
Chernomyrdin as acting prime minister.